Vermont

| HighestElevUS = 4393 | HighestElev = 1340 | MeanElevUS = 1000 | MeanElev = 300 | LowestPoint = Lago Champlain | LowestElevUS = 95 | LowestElev = 29 | ISOCode = US-VT | Sitio Web = www.vermont.gov

Vermont () es un estado en la Nueva Inglaterra regi髇 de los Estados Unidos, situado en la parte noreste del pa韘. El estado ocupa el 45o de superficie total, y 43 de la superficie terrestre a 9250 millas cuadradas, y tiene una poblaci髇 de 608827, lo que lo hace el segundo estado menos poblado (segundo a s髄o Wyoming). El 鷑ico estado de Nueva Inglaterra sin litoral a lo largo del Oc閍no Atl醤tico, Vermont es notable por las Monta馻s Verdes en el oeste y el lago Champlain en el noroeste. Es bordeado por Massachusetts al sur, New Hampshire al este, Nueva York, al oeste, y la provincia canadiense de Quebec hacia el norte.

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Mapa de Vermont

Originariamente habitada por las tribus nativas norteamericanas (abenaki, algonquinas, y iroqueses), el territorio que ahora es de Vermont fue reclamado por Francia pero se convirti en una posesi髇 brit醤ica despu閟 de la derrota de Francia en el franc閟 y el indio guerra. Durante muchos a駉s, el control de la zona en disputa es en torno de las colonias, sobre todo entre New Hampshire y Nueva York. Los colonos que se celebr los t韙ulos concedidos por las colonias de estos se oponen por el Green Mountain Boys milicia, que finalmente prevaleci en la creaci髇 de un estado independiente. Vermont se convirti en el 14to estado a sumarse a los Estados Unidos, a ra韟 de un ni駉 de 14 a駉s durante y despu閟 de la guerra revolucionaria como la Rep鷅lica independiente de Vermont. Vermont es uno de s髄o cinco estados de EE.UU. o de partes de los estados de una vez han sido una naci髇 independiente, los otros cuatro est醤 en California, Hawaii, Texas y la Florida Parroquias de Louisiana.

El estado es famoso por su paisaje y los productos l醕teos. Es el principal productor de jarabe de arce en los Estados Unidos. La capital del estado es Montpelier, y la ciudad m醩 grande es Burlington.

Sumario
  1. Geograf韆
    1. Las ciudades en Vermont
    2. Ciudades m醩 grandes en Vermont
    3. Clima
  2. Historia
    1. Prehistoria y Precolumbian
    2. Colonial
    3. Independencia, la Rep鷅lica de Vermont, y la condici髇 de Estado
    4. La guerra civil
    5. Postbellum 閜oca y m醩 all
  3. Demograf韆
    1. Poblaci髇
    2. La raza y el sexo
    3. Etnia e idioma
    4. Religi髇
  4. Econom韆
    1. Agricultura
    2. Fabricaci髇
    3. Vivienda
    4. Trabajo
    5. Seguros
    6. Turismo
    7. Extractiva
    8. Impuestos
    9. Las finanzas p鷅licas
  5. Transporte
    1. Principales Rutas
    2. Aeropuertos
    3. Las comunidades locales p鷅licos y privados de transporte
  6. Media
  7. Utilidades y Comunicaci髇
  8. Ley y gobierno
    1. Constitucional
      1. La Constituci髇 del Estado de Vermont
      2. Poder Ejecutivo
        1. El gobierno local
      3. Poder Legislativo
      4. Poder Judicial
      5. Los derechos civiles y libertades
      6. Federal representaci髇 legislativa
    2. Statutory
      1. M閐ico
    3. Pol韙icos
    4. Fiscalidad
      1. Loter韆s del Estado
      2. Ciudad del Gobierno
  9. Salud P鷅lica y Seguridad
  10. Educaci髇
    1. Academias y escuelas secundarias
    2. Educar a los profesores
    3. La 鷑ica sala de la escuela-casa
    4. La educaci髇 superior
  11. Deportes
  12. Culturales
  13. Estado s韒bolos
  14. Cabe destacar Vermonters
    1. Notable de ficci髇 Vermonters
  15. V閍se tambi閚
  16. Referencias
  17. Para leer m醩
  18. Enlaces externos

Geograf韆

Vermont se encuentra en la regi髇 de Nueva Inglaterra en el este de los Estados Unidos y un total de 9614 millas cuadradas (24902 km ), por lo que es la 45 m醩 grande del Estado. De ese total, las tierras comprende 9250 millas cuadradas (23955 km ) y el agua comprende 365 millas cuadradas (948 km ), por lo que es la 43 m醩 grande en superficie de la tierra y la 47 en el agua. En la zona, es m醩 grande que El Salvador y m醩 peque駉 que Hait.

La ribera occidental del r韔 Connecticut marca la frontera oriental del estado de Nueva Hampshire (el propio r韔 es parte de New Hampshire). Lago Champlain, el mayor lago en Vermont, es el sexto m醩 grande cuerpo de agua dulce en los Estados Unidos Vermont y separa de Nueva York en la porci髇 noroeste del estado. De norte a sur, Vermont es 159 millas (256 km). Su mayor anchura, de este a oeste, es de 89 millas (143 km) en la frontera canadiense, el m醩 estrecho ancho es de 37 millas (60 km) en la l韓ea de Massachusetts. La situaci髇 geogr醘ica del centro es Washington, tres millas (5 km) al este de Roxbury.

Existen seis diferentes regiones fisiogr醘icas de Vermont. Clasificados por geol骻icos y atributos f韘icos, son las Highlands noreste, las Monta馻s Verdes, la Taconic las Monta馻s, las tierras bajas de Champlain, el Valle de Vermont y la Vermont Piamonte.

El origen del nombre Monta馻s Verdes (franc閟: Verts Monts) es incierto. Algunas autoridades dicen que est醤 llamada as porque tienen mucho m醩 forestaci髇 que la mayor Monta馻s Blancas de New Hampshire y Adirondacks de Nueva York. Otras autoridades dicen que est醤 as llamada a causa de la predominancia de mica - cuarzo - clorita esquisto, un verde-hued metamorfosis shale. La gama formas norte-sur en funcionamiento la mayor韆 de la columna vertebral de la duraci髇 del estado, ligeramente al oeste de su centro. In the northwest near Lake Champlain is the fertile Champlain Valley . En la parte suroeste del estado son la Taconic las Monta馻s; Gran韙icos las Monta馻s est醤 en el noreste. Http://books.google.com/books?id=8NWPJkRK-VMC&pg=RA1-PA274-IA1&lpg=RA1- PA274-IA1 & DQ =% monta馻s 22granitic +% 22 + Vermont & source = web y ots = pp2RZdKv3o & sig = qEAMGLyzP3I5tkFmW5uxGHqPj5o # PRA1-PA272, M1 </ ref> En el noroeste, cerca del Lago Champlain es el f閞til valle de Champlain. En el sur del valle es el Lago Bomoseen.

Varios han timberlines monta馻s: el Monte Mansfield, la monta馻 m醩 alta del estado, as como Killington son ejemplos. Cerca del 77 por ciento del estado est cubierto por bosques y el resto est cubierto por praderas, tierras altas, lagos, lagunas pantanosas y los humedales.

羠eas en Vermont administrado por el Servicio de Parques Nacionales incluir la Apalaches Nacional Scenic Trail y el Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller Parque Hist髍ico Nacional en Woodstock.

Las ciudades en Vermont

ciudades (2003 estima la poblaci髇):

Ciudades m醩 grandes en Vermont

A pesar de que estas ciudades son lo suficientemente grandes como para ser considerados ciudades, que no se incorporan como tales. Ciudades m醩 grandes (2003 est)

Clima

Vermont tiene un clima continental h鷐edo (clasificaci髇 de Koppen el clima DFB), con c醠idos y h鷐edos veranos e inviernos fr韔s, que pasan a ser m醩 fr韔s en las elevaciones m醩 altas. Vermont es conocido por su barro temporada en la primavera seguido de un leve generalmente a comienzos de verano, Augusts caliente y un oto駉 colorido y, en particular, por su inviernos fr韔s. La parte norte del estado, incluido el noreste de la secci髇 rural (denominado el "Nordeste Reino") es conocido por los inviernos fr韔s con car醕ter excepcional, a menudo un promedio de 10 F (6 C) m醩 fr韔 que las zonas meridionales del estado. Anual nevadas promedios entre 60 a 100 pulgadas (150-250 cm), en funci髇 de la altitud, dando Vermont algunos de Nueva Inglaterra los mejores cross-country y descenso de esqu.

En el oto駉, las colinas de Vermont experiencia de una explosi髇 de color rojo, naranja y oro follaje que aparece en el az鷆ar de arce como el fr韔 enfoques. Esta famosa pantalla de color que se produce de manera abundante en Vermont no se debe tanto a la presencia de una variante particular del az鷆ar de arce, sino que m醩 bien es causada por una serie de suelos y condiciones clim醫icas 鷑icas de la zona.

La m醩 alta temperatura registrada fue de 105 F (41 C), a Vernon el 4 de julio de 1911; los m醩 bajos de temperatura se registraron -50 F (-46 C), a Bloomfield en 30 de diciembre de 1933.

Historia

Prehistoria y Precolumbian

Vermont fue cubierto con mares peri骴icamente de la C醡brico a los per韔dos Dev髇ico. La mayor韆 de las rocas sedimentarias establecidas en estos mares se deforme por la creaci髇 de monta馻. Los f髎iles, sin embargo, son comunes en la regi髇 del Lago Champlain. Zonas bajas del oeste de Vermont se inund una vez m醩, como parte del Valle de San Lorenzo "Champlain Mar" al final de la 鷏tima glaciaci髇, cuando la tierra a鷑 no hab韆 recuperado a partir del peso de los glaciares. Los dep髎itos de agua salada de moluscos, junto con los huesos de las ballenas beluga, se han encontrado en la regi髇 del Lago Champlain.

Poco se sabe de la precolombinas la historia de Vermont. La parte occidental del estado fue originalmente el hogar de una peque馻 poblaci髇 de algonquinas de habla tribus, incluido el Mohican y abenaki pueblos. Entre 8500 y 7000 aC, en el momento del Mar Champlain, los nativos americanos y de caza habitada en Vermont. Del siglo 8 aC a 1000 aC fue el Periodo Arcaico. Durante la era, los Americanos Nativos migraron durante todo el a駉. A partir de 1000 aC a 1600 dC fue el Periodo de Woodland, cuando los pueblos y las redes comerciales se establecieron, y de cer醡ica y arco y flecha tecnolog韆 fue desarrollada. En alg鷑 momento entre 1500 y 1600, los iroqueses llev a muchas de las m醩 peque馻s tribus nativas de Vermont, m醩 tarde utilizando la zona como un coto de caza y en guerra con el resto de abenaki. La poblaci髇 en el a駉 1500 se estima en alrededor de 10000 personas.

Colonial

El primer europeo en ver Vermont se piensa que es Jacques Cartier, en 1535. El 30 de julio de 1609, el explorador franc閟 Samuel de Champlain se cobr la esfera de lo que hoy es el lago Champlain, dando a las monta馻s la denominaci髇 de Les Monts Vert (las Monta馻s Verdes). Francia Vermont reivindicada como parte de Nueva Francia, y levantaron Fort Sainte Anne en Isle La Motte en 1666 como parte de la fortificaci髇 del Lago Champlain. Este fue el primer asentamiento europeo en Vermont y el sitio de la primera Cat髄ica Romana de masas.

Durante la segunda mitad del siglo 17, no los colonos franceses comenzaron a explorar Vermont y sus alrededores. En 1690, un grupo de holand閟 de colonos brit醤icos de Albany en virtud del capit醤 Jacobus de calentamiento estableci el calentamiento De Stockade a punto Chimenea (ocho millas o 13 km al oeste de la actual Addison). Esta soluci髇 de comercio y despu閟 fue directamente a trav閟 del lago Champlain de Crown Point, Nueva York (Pointe la Chevelure).

En 1731, m醩 los colonos franceses llegaron. Ellos construyeron un peque駉 temporal de madera stockade (Fort de Pieux) en lo que se Chimenea hasta el punto de trabajo en Fort St Fr閐閞ic comenz en 1734. El fuerte, una vez terminado, el franc閟 dio el control de la Nueva Francia / Vermont regi髇 fronteriza en la cuenca del lago Champlain Valley y es la 鷑ica fortaleza permanente en la zona hasta el edificio de Fort Carillon m醩 de 20 a駉s m醩 tarde. El gobierno alent la colonizaci髇 francesa, dando lugar al desarrollo de los peque駉s asentamientos franc閟 en el valle. Los brit醤icos trataron de tomar el Fuerte de San Fr閐閞ic cuatro veces entre 1755 y 1758; en 1759, una fuerza combinada de 12000 brit醤ico regular y las tropas provinciales en virtud de Sir Jeffrey Amherst captur la fortaleza. Los franceses fueron expulsados de la zona y se retiraron a otras fortalezas a lo largo del r韔 Richelieu. Un a駉 m醩 tarde un grupo de mohawks quemado la soluci髇 al suelo, dejando s髄o las chimeneas, que dio la zona de su nombre.

El primer asentamiento brit醤ico permanente se cre en 1724, con la construcci髇 de Fort Dummer Vermont en la medida en el sureste, bajo el mando del teniente Timothy Dwight. Esta fortaleza protege los asentamientos cercanos de Dummerston y Brattleboro. Estos asentamientos fueron realizadas por la Provincia de la Bah韆 de Massachusetts para proteger a sus colonos en la frontera occidental a lo largo del r韔 Connecticut. La segunda soluci髇 brit醤ica el 1761 fue fundador de Bennington en el suroeste.

Durante el franc閟 y el indio Guerra, Vermont algunos colonos, incluidos Ethan Allen, se uni a la milicia colonial ayudar a los brit醤icos en los ataques contra los franceses. Fort Carillon en el New York-Vermont frontera, un franc閟 fortaleza construida en 1755, fue el sitio de dos British ofensivas en virtud de Lord Amherst del comando: el que pierda ataque brit醤ico en 1758 y la de recuperar al a駉 siguiente sin mayores resistencia (la mayor韆 de la guarnici髇 hab韆 sido eliminada para defender Quebec, Montreal, y las fortalezas occidentales). El brit醤ico cambi su nombre por el fuerte Fort Ticonderoga (que se convirti en el sitio despu閟 de dos batallas durante la Guerra Revolucionaria Americana). Despu閟 de Francia la p閞dida en el franc閟 y el indio guerra, el 1763 Tratado de Par韘 dio el control de la tierra a los brit醤icos.

El fin de la guerra trajo nuevos colonos a Vermont. Una fortaleza en el Crown Point se han construido, y la Crown Point Road Militar se extend韆 desde el este al oeste del desierto de Vermont Springfield a Chimney Point, haciendo viajes de la vecina colonias brit醤icas m醩 f醕il. Tres colonias establecidas reclamaci髇 a la zona. La Provincia de la Bah韆 de Massachusetts se cobr la tierra sobre la base de la carta de 1629 de la Massachusetts Bay Colony. La Provincia de Nueva York, Vermont reivindicada sobre la base de tierras concedida a el duque de York (m醩 tarde rey James II) en 1664. La Provincia de New Hampshire, Vermont tambi閚 aleg sobre la base de un decreto de George II en 1740. En 1741, George II Massachusetts dictamin que las reclamaciones en Vermont y New Hampshire fueron nulos y fijo del Massachusetts l韒ite norte en su actual ubicaci髇. Esto todav韆 sali de Nueva Hampshire y Nueva York con reivindicaciones a la tierra.

La situaci髇 dio lugar a las subvenciones New Hampshire, una serie de 135 donaciones de tierras entre 1749 y 1764 de New Hampshire del gobernador colonial, Benning Wentworth. Las subvenciones desencaden una disputa con el gobernador de Nueva York, que comenz a conceder cartas de su propio para New Yorker asentamiento en Vermont. En 1770, Ethan Allen, junto con sus hermanos Ira y Levi, as como Seth Warner-contratado una milicia informal, el Green Mountain Boys, para proteger los intereses de la original de New Hampshire colonos contra los nuevos inmigrantes de Nueva York. Cuando un juez de Nueva York lleg a Westminster con los colonos de Nueva York en marzo de 1775, estall la violencia como enojados ciudadanos se hizo cargo de los juzgados y llamado del sheriff posse. Esto dio como resultado la muerte de Daniel y William Houghton franc閟 en la "Masacre de Westminster."

Independencia, la Rep鷅lica de Vermont, y la condici髇 de Estado

El 18 de enero de 1777, representantes de la Nueva Hampshire subvenciones convocadas en Westminster y declar la independencia de la Rep鷅lica de Vermont. Para los primeros seis meses de la rep鷅lica de la existencia, la rep鷅lica se llam Nueva Connecticut.

El 2 de junio, una segunda convenci髇 de 72 delegados se reunieron en Westminster, conocido como el "Convenio de Westminster." En esta reuni髇, los delegados adoptaron el nombre de "Vermont" a la sugerencia del doctor Thomas Young de Filadelfia, un defensor de los delegados que escribi una carta para informarles sobre c髆o lograr admisi髇 en los reci閚 independizados Estados Unidos como el 14 estado. Los delegados fijar la hora para una reuni髇 un mes m醩 tarde. El 4 de julio, la Constituci髇 de la Rep鷅lica de Vermont fue redactado durante una violenta tormenta en el Windsor Tavern propiedad de El韆s Occidental y fue aprobado por los delegados el 8 de julio despu閟 de cuatro d韆s de debate. Esta fue una de las primeras constituciones escritas en Am閞ica del Norte y es indiscutiblemente la primera en abolir la instituci髇 de la esclavitud, para facilitar el sufragio universal virilidad y requieren el apoyo de las escuelas p鷅licas. La taberna de Windsor, se ha mantenido como la antigua Casa de Constituci髇, administrado como un estado hist髍ico sitio.

La batalla de Bennington, luch el 16 de agosto de 1777, fue un acontecimiento seminal en la historia del estado de Vermont. El naciente gobierno republicano, creado despu閟 de a駉s de agitaci髇 pol韙ica, enfrentan retos de New York, New Hampshire, Gran Breta馻 y los nuevos Estados Unidos, ninguno de los cuales reconoce su soberan韆. La rep鷅lica de la capacidad de derrotar a un poderoso ej閞cito invasor le dio una legitimidad entre sus dispersas frontera de la sociedad que sostenga a trav閟 de catorce a駉s de fr醙il independencia antes de que por fin lograrse la condici髇 de Estado como el 14 estado en el sindicato en 1791.

Durante el verano de 1777, los invasores del ej閞cito brit醤ico del general John Burgoyne recort hacia el sur de Canad hasta el R韔 Hudson, captur la estrat間ica fortaleza de Fort Ticonderoga, y condujo el Ej閞cito Continental en un intento desesperado hacia el sur de retiro. Incursionar en los partidos de soldados brit醤icos y guerreros nativos libremente atacaron, saquearon e incendiaron la frontera de las comunidades del Valle Champlain y amenazados todos los asentamientos al sur. La frontera de Vermont se derrumb en la faz de la invasi髇 brit醤ica. La legislatura de Nueva Hampshire, por temor a una invasi髇 desde el este, moviliz a la milicia del estado bajo el mando del General John Stark.

General Burgoyne recibido inteligencia de que las grandes tiendas de caballos, comida y municiones se guardaban en Bennington, que es la comunidad m醩 grande en el 醨ea de concesi髇 de tierras. 蒷 envi 2600 hombres, casi un tercio de su ej閞cito, para aprovechar el almac閚 colonial all, sin saber que Stark General de New Hampshire tropas fueron cruzando las Monta馻s Verdes para unirse a Bennington con los regimientos Vermont continental comandado por el Coronel Seth Warner, junto con el local de Vermont y el oeste de Massachusetts milicia. La combinaci髇 de fuerzas americanas, en virtud de Stark del comando, los brit醤icos atacaron la columna en Hoosick, Nueva York, justo al otro lado de la frontera de Bennington. General Stark presuntamente desafi a sus hombres a luchar hasta la muerte, dici閚doles que: "No son sus enemigos. Ellos son los nuestros, o esta noche Molly Stark duerme una viuda!" En un intento desesperado, todos los d韆s de batalla en el intenso calor del verano, el ej閞cito de yankee agricultores matado o capturado casi todo el destacamento brit醤ico. General Burgoyne nunca se recuper de esa p閞dida y, finalmente, se entreg el resto de su hombre-6000 vigor en Saratoga, Nueva York, el 17 de octubre.

Las Batallas de Bennington y Saratoga son reconocidos como el punto de inflexi髇 en la guerra revolucionaria porque eran la primera gran derrota del ej閞cito brit醤ico y el franc閟 convencido de que los americanos eran dignos de la ayuda militar. Stark se convirti ampliamente conocido como el "H閞oe de Bennington", y el aniversario de la batalla est todav韆 se celebran en Vermont como un feriado legal conocida como "Batalla Bennington D韆." Bajo el p髍tico de la Statehouse Vermont, junto a una estatua de granito heroica de Ethan Allen, hay un ca耋n de bronce que fue capturado de las tropas brit醤icas en la batalla de Bennington.

Vermont seguido gobernarse a s misma como una entidad soberana con sede en la ciudad oriental de Windsor durante catorce a駉s. La Vermont Rep鷅lica emiti su propia moneda, monedas y en funcionamiento un servicio postal estatal. Thomas Chittenden, que lleg a Vermont de Connecticut en 1774, actu como jefe de estado, utilizando el t閞mino gobernador m醩 presidente. Chittenden regir醤 la naciente rep鷅lica de 1778 a 1789 y de 1790 a 1791. Chittenden intercambi embajadores con Francia, los Pa韘es Bajos, y el gobierno americano luego a Filadelfia. En 1791, Vermont se uni a la Uni髇 federal como el decimocuarto estado-el primer estado para entrar en la Uni髇 Europea tras los trece colonias originales, y un contrapeso a slave celebraci髇 Kentucky, que fue admitida a la Uni髇 Europea poco despu閟.

Vermont hab韆 un 髍gano legislativo unicameral hasta 1836.

1854 Un Vermont Senado informe sobre la esclavitud se hizo eco de la Constituci髇 de Vermont el primer art韈ulo, sobre los derechos de todos los hombres, cuestionando c髆o un gobierno puede favorecer los derechos de un pueblo sobre otro. El informe impulsado el crecimiento de la abolici髇 de circulaci髇 en el estado, y en respuesta, una resoluci髇 de la Asamblea General de Georgia se autoriza el remolque de Vermont al mar. El de mediados a fines de 1850 se produjo una transici髇 de Vermonters su mayor韆 a favor de la esclavitud de la contenci髇, a una mucho m醩 seria oposici髇 a la instituci髇, produciendo la radical republicano y abolicionista Thaddeus Stevens. Como el partido Whig arrugados, y el Partido Republicano surgido, Vermont tendencia firmemente en apoyo de sus candidatos, en primer lugar en el 醡bito estatal y m醩 tarde a la presidencia. En 1860 se vot por el Presidente Lincoln, d醤dole el mayor margen de victoria de cualquier Estado. Esta fuerte inclinaci髇 hacia el Partido Republicano ha continuado hasta hace muy poco, como lo demuestra la elecci髇 de s髄o 2 senadores de otros partidos desde la guerra civil (Patrick Leahy de los Democr醫ica PARY y Bernard Sanders, independiente).

La guerra civil

Durante la Guerra Civil Americana, Vermont enviado m醩 de 34000 hombres en los Estados Unidos de servicios, contribuyendo 18 regimientos de infanter韆 y caballer韆, 3 bater韆s de artiller韆 ligera, 3 empresas de francotiradores, 2 compa耥as de caballer韆 frontera, y miles en el ej閞cito regular y la marina , Y en otros estados de las unidades. Casi 5200 Vermonters resultaron muertos o heridos mortalmente por acci髇 o murieron de la enfermedad. Vermonters, si no Vermont unidades, particip en cada una de las principales batalla de la guerra.

Entre los m醩 famosos de la Vermont unidades fueron la 1 Brigada de Vermont, la 2 Brigada de Vermont, y el 1 de Vermont Caballer韆.

Una gran proporci髇 de Vermont y el estado a nivel nacional los pol韙icos desde hace varias d閏adas despu閟 de la Guerra Civil fueron los veteranos.

La tierra m醩 septentrional de acci髇 de la guerra, la Santa Albans Raid, se llev a cabo en Vermont.

Postbellum 閜oca y m醩 all

Las dos d閏adas siguientes al final de la Guerra Civil Americana (1864-1885) vio tanto la expansi髇 econ髆ica y la contracci髇, y bastante dram醫ico cambio social. Vermont del sistema de ferrocarriles ampliado y estaban vinculados a los sistemas nacionales, la producci髇 agr韈ola y la exportaci髇 se dispar y el aumento de los ingresos. Pero Vermont tambi閚 consider los efectos de las recesiones y p醤ico financiero, especialmente la 1873 de p醤ico que se tradujo en un importante 閤odo de los j髒enes Vermonters. La transici髇 a pensar en los derechos de los ciudadanos, se馻l por primera vez a un jefe de Vermont 1854 el Senado informe sobre la esclavitud, y, posteriormente, Lincoln's Gettysburg Direcci髇 en el cambio de c髆o perciben los ciudadanos los derechos civiles, la agitaci髇 de combustible para el sufragio femenino. La primera elecci髇 en que las mujeres se les permit韆 votar fue el 18 de diciembre de 1880, cuando las mujeres se les concedi limitado el sufragio y por primera vez pueden votar en las elecciones ciudad, y luego en estado legislativo razas.

Las grandes inundaciones, se produjo a principios de noviembre de 1927. Durante este incidente, 85 personas murieron, 84 de ellos en Vermont. Otra inundaci髇 se produjo en 1973, cuando las inundaciones provocaron la muerte de dos personas y millones de d髄ares en da駉s a la propiedad.

El 25 de abril de 2000, como resultado de la Corte Suprema de Vermont 's decisi髇 en Baker v. Vermont, Vermont Asamblea General aprob y el Gobernador Howard Dean, firmado en ley H.0847, siempre que el estado sancionado beneficios del matrimonio para gays y Parejas lesbianas en la forma de uniones civiles. La controversia sobre el proyecto de ley las uniones civiles es un tema central en las posteriores elecciones de 2000.

Demograf韆

Poblaci髇

. El centro de la poblaci髇 de Vermont se encuentra en Washington County, en la ciudad de Warren http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt.

De acuerdo con los EE.UU. Oficina del Censo, a partir de 2005, Vermont tiene una poblaci髇 estimada de 623050, lo que representa un aumento de 1817, o 0,3%, desde el a駉 anterior y un aumento de 14223, o 2,3%, desde el a駉 2000. Esto incluye un aumento natural desde el 鷏timo censo de poblaci髇 de 7148 personas (es decir 33606 nacimientos menos defunciones 26458) y un aumento debido a la migraci髇 neta de 7889 personas en el estado. La inmigraci髇 procedente de fuera de los Estados Unidos dio lugar a un aumento neto de 4359 personas, y la migraci髇 dentro del pa韘 produjo un aumento neto de 3530 personas.

La raza y el sexo

Vermont la poblaci髇 es la siguiente:

Entre los 50 estados y el Distrito de Columbia, Vermont filas:

  • 2 en su proporci髇 de blancos
  • 2 m醩 antigua mediana age40.7 en 2005, del Censo de EE.UU. Encuesta sobre la Comunidad
  • 41a en su proporci髇 de los asi醫icos
  • 49a en la proporci髇 de hispanos
  • 48a en la proporci髇 de negros
  • 29a en la proporci髇 de nativos americanos s
  • 39a en su proporci髇 de personas de raza mixta
  • 28a en la proporci髇 de hombres
  • 24a en su proporci髇 de mujeres

Etnia e idioma

El mayor ascendencia grupos son los siguientes:

Los residentes de ascendencia brit醤ica (especialmente Ingl閟) viven en la mayor parte de Vermont. La parte norte del estado mantiene un porcentaje significativo de personas de franc閟-canadiense ascendencia.

En las 鷏timas dos d閏adas, el 醨ea de Burlington ha acogido con satisfacci髇 el reasentamiento de varias comunidades de refugiados. Estos incluyen los individuos y las familias del Sur de Asia Oriental, Bosnia, Sud醤, y el T韇et. Estas comunidades han crecido hasta incluir a los no refugiados y en algunos casos son varias las generaciones en ciernes.

. Seg鷑 el Censo de EE.UU. 2000, del 2,54% de la poblaci髇 de 5 a駉s y m醩 hablan franc閟 en casa, mientras que 1,00% hablan espa駉l http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=50&mode=state_tops.

Religi髇

| accessdate=2007-01-05}} of Vermont title = El Graduate Center, CUNY | = trabajo de identificaci髇 religiosa de Am閞ica Encuesta | url = http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-05)) de Vermont
Religi髇 Porcentaje
Christian 67%
Cat髄ica Romana 38%
Protestante 29%
Congregacional / Iglesia Unida de Cristo 6%
Metodista 6%
Episcopal 4%
Otros cristianos 4%
Bautista 3%
Otros protestantes 2%
Asambleas de Dios 1%
Evang閘ica 1%
Adventista del S閜timo d韆 1%
no confesional 1%
Otras Religiones 2%
Ninguna religi髇 22%
Se neg a responder 8%

Al igual que muchos de sus estados vecinos, Vermont mayor afiliaci髇 religiosa en la 閜oca colonial fue Congregationalism. En el a駉 1776, el 63% de los afiliados miembros de la iglesia en Vermont se Congregationalists. En el momento, sin embargo, la mayor韆 de los colonos no eran miembros de la iglesia, porque gran parte de la tierra era desierto. S髄o el 9% de las personas pertenec韆n a una iglesia en ese momento. La congregaci髇 Iglesia Unida de Cristo sigue siendo la mayor denominaci髇 protestante y Vermont cuenta con el mayor porcentaje de esta denominaci髇 de cualquier Estado.

Hoy m醩 de dos tercios de los residentes de Vermont se identifican a s mismos como cristianos. El principal 髍gano religioso en el estado es la Iglesia Cat髄ica Romana. Una encuesta Iglesia Cat髄ica en 1990 inform que el 25% de Vermonters eran miembros de la Iglesia Cat髄ica, aunque m醩 de que la auto-identifican como cat髄icos.

M醩 de una quinta parte de Vermonters se identifican como no religiosas, la vinculaci髇 con Vermont Oregon como el segundo m醩 alto porcentaje de no-personas religiosas en los Estados Unidos. S髄o el Estado de Washington tiene un porcentaje m醩 alto.

Casi un tercio de Vermonters se auto-identificaron los protestantes. La denominaci髇 protestante m醩 grande del estado es de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo, y la segunda m醩 grande es la Iglesia Metodista Unida, seguido por los episcopales, "otros" cristianos, y los bautistas.

Joseph Smith, Jr y Brigham Young-los dos primeros l韉eres de la Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los 趌timos D韆s-fueron ambos nacidos en Vermont. Adherentes a la fe mormona, sin embargo, no constituyen un 鷑ico punto porcentual de la poblaci髇 de Vermont. Un monumento a Jos Smith, en su lugar de nacimiento a Sharon, se mantiene por el LDS. Un obelisco memorializing Brigham Young domina la ciudad de Whitingham, su lugar de nacimiento, y se refiere a 閘 como "un hombre de espl閚dido equipo".

El 2001 Shengold Enciclopedia Jud韆 inform de que el 5000 ha estado Judios -3000 en Burlington y 500 en cada Montpelier-Barre y Rutland-y cuatro de Reforma y dos conservadores congregaciones.

Otras religiones como el islamismo, el hinduismo y el budismo tienen muy pocos adherentes. Sin embargo, aunque peque駉 en relaci髇 con otras religiones, Vermont tiene la concentraci髇 m醩 alta del oeste de convertir los budistas en el pa韘 y varios centros de retiro budista. Http://www.boston.com/news/local/vermont/articles/2005/02 / 23/green_mountains_good_karma /

Econom韆

De acuerdo con los EE.UU. 2005 Oficina de An醠isis Econ髆ico informe, Vermont del producto bruto estatal (SPG) fue de US $ 23 millones. Esto coloca el estado 50mo entre los 50 estados. Rankings tend to favor higher cost of living areas and downrate lower cost of living areas The per capita personal income was $32,770 in 2004. Est 38a per c醦ita en el SGP. Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_by_GDP_per_capita_ 28nominal% 29% Rankings tienden a favorecer m醩 alto costo de la vida y las zonas downrate menor costo de vida zonas per c醦ita El ingreso personal fue de $ 32770 en 2004.

Componentes del SGP son: Los porcentajes pueden no sumar exactamente 100% debido al redondeo http://www.bea.gov/bea/newsrelarchive/2006/gsp1006.htm </ ref>

  • Gobierno - 3.083 millones de d髄ares (13,4%)
  • Inmobiliarias, Alquiler y Arrendamiento - $ 2667 millones (11,6%)
  • La fabricaci髇 de bienes duraderos - $ 2210 millones (9,6%)
  • Cuidado de la Salud y Asistencia Social - $ 2170 millones (9,4%)
  • Comercio al por menor - $ 1.934 millones (8,4%)
  • Finanzas y Seguros - $ 1.369 millones (5,9%)
  • Profesionales y servicios t閏nicos - $ 1276 millones (5,5%)
  • Construcci髇 - $ 1.258 millones (5,5%)
  • Comercio al por mayor - $ 1.175 millones (5,1%)
  • Alojamiento y Alimentaci髇 Servicios - $ 1035 millones (4,5%)
  • Informaci髇 - $ 958 millones (4,2%)
  • Bienes no duraderos de fabricaci髇 - $ 711 millones (3,1%)
  • Otros servicios - $ 563 millones (2,4%)
  • Utilidades - $ 553 millones (2,4%)
  • Transporte y Almacenamiento - $ 484 millones (2,1%)
  • Servicios Educativos - $ 478 millones (2,1%)
  • Administrativos y de Servicios de Residuos - $ 436 millones (1,9%)
  • Agricultura, silvicultura, pesca y caza - $ 375 millones (1,6%)
  • Arte, Entretenimiento y Recreaci髇 - $ 194 millones (.8%)
  • Miner韆 - $ 100 millones (.4%)
  • Gesti髇 de Empresas - $ 35 millones (.2%)

Agricultura

La agricultura aporta 2,6 millones de d髄ares, cifra incluye las posibles consecuencias econ髆icas afectan a todos los dem醩 醡bitos, adem醩 de la Agricultura. Esto explica la gran diferencia con la cifra en el SGP por encima de alrededor del 12%, directa e indirectamente a la econom韆 de los Estados.

En los dos 鷏timos siglos, Vermont ha tenido dos explosiones de poblaci髇 y la poblaci髇 bustos. En primer lugar se establecieron por parte de los agricultores, madereros y cazadores, Vermont perdido gran parte de su poblaci髇, ya que los agricultores se trasladaron al oeste en las Grandes Planicies en busca de abundante, f醕ilmente cultivado la tierra. Tala cay de forma similar como el exceso de corte y la explotaci髇 de otros bosques de Vermont hizo menos atractivo bosque. A pesar de que estos cambios de poblaci髇 devastado la econom韆 de Vermont, los principios de la p閞dida de poblaci髇 el efecto beneficioso de Vermont permite la tierra y los bosques a recuperarse. La falta de acompa馻miento de la industria ha permitido a Vermont para evitar muchos de los malos efectos de siglo 20 bustos industriales, efectos que a鷑 asolan los estados vecinos. Hoy, la mayor韆 de los bosques de Vermont consisten en el crecimiento de segunda.

De las restantes industrias, la ganader韆 lechera es la principal fuente de ingresos agr韈olas.

En los 鷏timos a駉s, Vermont ha sido aluvi髇 con planes de construir condominios y casas en lo que es relativamente barato, sin tocar tierra. Vermont el gobierno ha respondido con una serie de leyes de control de desarrollo y con algunas iniciativas pioneras para evitar la p閞dida de Vermont la industria lechera.

En 1947 hubo 11206 granjas lecheras en el estado. En 2003 hay menos de 1500, una disminuci髇 del 80%. El n鷐ero de cabezas de ganado ha disminuido en un 40%. Sin embargo, la producci髇 de leche se ha duplicado en el mismo per韔do, debido a triplicar la producci髇 por vaca. Http://www.vermontdairy.com/dairy_industry/farms/numbers </ ref>

An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the manufacture and sale of artisan foods, fancy foods, and novelty items trading in part upon the Vermont "brand" which the state manages and defends. Examples of these specialty exports include Cabot Cheese , the Vermont Teddy Bear Company , Fine Paints of Europe , Vermont Butter and Cheese Company, several micro breweries, ginseng growers, Burton Snowboards , Lake Champlain Chocolates , King Arthur Flour , and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream . Vermont's Agency of Agriculture, Food & Markets maintains the highest dairy standards in the US Only France's Minister of Agriculture, Food, Fishing and Rural Affairs (see Minister of Agriculture (France) ) has standards for butterfat content equal to Vermont's.

In 2001, Vermont produced 275,000 US gallons (1,040,000 L) of maple syrup, about one-quarter of US production. For 2005 that number was 410,000 accounting for 37% of national production. ((cite web | author = Vermont Maple Sugar Makers Assoc. | title=Maple Facts |url= http://www.vermontmaple.org/maplefacts.html | access date = 2007-04-08)) The Vermont Department of Agriculture maintains a rating standard for maple syrup that is higher than the US Department of Agriculture's, all other states, and Canada.

In 2000, only 3% of the state's working population was still engaged in agriculture.

Manufacturing

IBM, in Essex Junction, is Vermont's largest for-profit employer. It provides 25% of all manufacturing jobs in Vermont. It is responsible for $1 billion of the state's annual economy. The Burlington Free Press , February 28, 2007,page 8C, "IBM:Enriching economy for 50 years."

Housing

Vermont is the 17th highest state in the nation for mortgage affordability. However, in 41 other states, inhabitants contributed within plus or minus 4% of Vermont's 18.4% of household income to a mortgage.

Labor

As of 2006, there were 305,000 workers in Vermont. 11% of these are unionized. http://www.empirecenter.org/2007/01/unions_shrink_e.php&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;A separate study shows over 325,000 workers in 2000! http://www.bishca.state.vt.us/hcadiv/Data_Reports/healthinsurmarket/SurveyVTFamilyHealth2000/DataTables126_146/128_WorkingStatewideOfferFirm.PDF&lt;/ref&gt;

A 2007 survey claimed that Vermonters were the least satisfied with their job in the whole nation and were the most likely to be making plans to leave. http://aol.salary.com/careersandwork/salary/articles/atcl_careeradvice.asp?atc=593&lt;/ref&gt;

Insurance

Captive insurance plays an increasingly large role in Vermont's economy. With this form of alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations form standalone insurance companies to insure their own risks, thereby substantially reducing their insurance premiums and gaining a significant measure of control over types of risks to be covered. There are also significant tax advantages to be gained from the formation and operation of captive insurance companies. According to the Insurance Information Institute, Vermont in 2004 was the world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance companies, following Bermuda and the Cayman Islands .

Tourism

Tourism is the state's largest industry. It contributes $4.1 billion to the state's economy or 27% of the gross state product. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3675/is_/ai_n&lt;/ref&gt; This is the highest percentage in the country.

In winter, the ski resorts Stowe , Killington Ski Resort , Mad River Glen , Sugarbush , Stratton , Jay Peak , Okemo , Mount Snow and Bromley host skiers from around the globe, although their largest markets are the Boston, Montreal and New York metropolitan areas. In the summer, resort towns like Stowe , Manchester , and Woodstock host visitors. Resorts, hotels, restaurants, and shops, designed to attract tourists, employ people year-round.

Summer camps contribute to Vermont's tourist economy. Trout fishing, lake fishing, and ice fishing draw outdoor enthusiasts to the state, as does the hiking on the Long Trail . In winter, nordic and backcountry skiers visit to travel the length of the state on the Catamount Trail . Several horse shows are annual events. Vermont's state parks, historic sites, museums, golf courses, and new boutique hotels with spas were designed to attract tourists.

Quarrying

The towns of Rutland and Barre are the traditional centers of marble and granite quarrying and carving in the US For many years Vermont was also the headquarters of the smallest union in the US, the Stonecutters Association, of about 500 members. Up the western side of the state runs the "Marble Valley" joining up with the "Slate Valley" that runs from just inside New York across from Chimney Point till it meets the "Granite Valley" that runs south past Rutland, home of the Rock of Ages quarry, the largest granite quarry in America. Vermont is the largest producer of slate in the country. Production of dimension stone is the greatest producer of revenues by quarrying.

Taxes

Vermont stands 14th highest out of 50 states and the District of Columbia for state and local taxation, with a per capita load of $3,681. The national average is $3,447.DatabankUSA, AARP Bulletin , April 2007, compiled from figures from the US Census However, CNNMoney ranked Vermont highest in the nation based on the percentage of per capita income. The rankings showed Vermont had a per capita tax load of $5,387, 14.1% of the per capita income of $38,306. http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2007/pf/0704/gallery.tax_friendliest/8.html&lt;/ref&gt;

Vermont collects personal income tax in a progressive structure of five different income brackets, ranging from 3.6% to 9.5%.

Vermont's general sales tax rate is 6%, which is imposed on sales of tangible personal property, amusement charges, fabrication charges, some public utility charges and some service contracts (some towns impose an additional 1% Local Option Tax). There are 46 exemptions from the tax which include medical items, food, manufacturing machinery, equipment and fuel, residential fuel and electricity, clothing, and shoes with a purchase price of $110 or less. A use tax is imposed on the buyer at the same rate as the sales tax. The buyer pays the use tax when the sellers fails to collect the sales tax or the items are purchased from a source where no tax is collected. The use tax applies to items taxable under the sales tax. Property taxes are imposed for the support of education and municipal services.

Vermont does not assess tax on intangible personal property . Vermont does not collect inheritance taxes ; however, its estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws and therefore the state still imposes its own estate tax.

Government Finances

Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced budget requirement. http://www.ncsl.org/programs/fiscal/balbuda.htm&lt;/ref&gt;

In 2007, Moody's Investors Service gave its top rating of Aaa to the state.Burlington Free Press, February 6, 2007, Business, page 7A, Moody's gives highest bond rating to Vermont.

Transporte

Vermont's main mode of travel is by automobile. Individual communities and counties have public transit, but their breadth of coverage is frequently limited. Greyhound Lines services a number of small towns. Two Amtrak trains serve Vermont. The Ethan Allen Express serves Rutland and Fair Haven, while the Vermonter serves Saint Albans, Essex Junction, Waterbury, Montpelier, Randolph, White River Junction, Windsor, Bellows Falls and Brattleboro.

For a more detailed explanation see a List of Routes in Vermont .

Major Routes

Airports

Vermont is served by two commercial airports:

Local community public and private transportation

  • Addison County has the ACTR (Addison County Transit Resources) out of Middlebury, also serving Bristol and Vergennes.
  • Bennington County features the GME (American Red Cross Green Mountain Express) out of Bennington and the YT (Yankee Trails) running out of Rensselaer, New York.
  • The RCT (Rural Community Transportation) runs out of Saint Johnsbury and services Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille and Orleans Counties.
  • Burlington (home of the University of Vermont ) has CCTA (Chittenden County Transportation Authority) and CATS (University of Vermont Campus Area Transportation System).
  • Colchester in Chittenden County is serviced by the SSTA (Special Services Transportation Agency).
  • The Network (Northwest Vermont Public Transit Network, NVPT) running out of Saint Albans, services Franklin and Grand Isle Counties.
  • Stowe, in Lamoille county, is serviced by STS (Stowe Trolley System, Village Mountain Shuttle, Morrisville Shuttle).
  • STS (Stagecoach Transportation Services) out of Randolph in Orange County also serves parts of Windsor County.
  • Rutland County has the Bus (Marble Valley Regional Transit District, MVRTD) out of Rutland.
  • In Washington county the GMTA (Green Mountain Transit Authority) runs out of the capital city, Montpelier.
  • Brattleboro in Windham county is served by the BeeLine (Brattleboro Town Bus). Windham is served, out of West Dover, by the MOOver (Deerfield Valley Transit Association, DVTA).
  • Ludlow (in Windsor County) is served by the LMTS (Ludlow Municipal Transit System). Windsor is also served by Advanced Transit (AT) out of Wilder and the CRT (Connecticut River Transit) out of Springfield, which also serves parts of Windham County.
  • There is ferry service to New York State from Burlington, Charlotte, Grand Isle, and Shoreham. All but the Shoreham ferry are operated by the Lake Champlain Transportation Company .

Media

See List of television stations in Vermont .

Utilities and Communication

(Above percentages are of population, not of land area.)

Cell phone coverage in the state, generally, outside of the major metropolitan areas is weak due to interference from mountains, the attempt to serve a small rural population living in a large area rendering investment in improvements uneconomical, and environmentalists opposition to towers. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3675/is_200310/ai_n9323531&lt;/ref&gt; Unicel , focusing on rural areas, has better coverage. http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20070105/085242.shtml&lt;/ref&gt;

In May 2007 , Vermont passed measures intended to make Broadband ( 3mbits minimum ) together with Cellular coverage Universally available to all citizens with the intention of having the first e-State in the Union by 2010 . A Synopsis of The Extent of this measure

Law and government

Constitutional

The Constitution of the State of Vermont

Provision is made for the following "frame of government" under the Constitution of the State of Vermont: the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch. All members of the executive and legislative branch serve two year terms including the governor and senators. There are no term limits for any office.

Executive branch

The current governor of Vermont is Jim Douglas , who assumed office in 2003. The offices of the Governor of Vermont are located at The Pavilion in Montpelier , the state capital.

Vermonters elect a state governor and lieutenant governor on separate tickets. For example, when Republican Governor Richard Snelling died in office in 1991, the Democratic Lieutenant Governor Howard Dean succeeded him for the remainder of that term. In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, Vermonters elect four other officials on a statewide ballot: Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Vermont Auditor of Accounts , and Attorney General .

Local government

There are three types of incorporated municipalities in Vermont, towns, cities and villages. As in the other New England states, towns are the basic unit of municipal government. Cities are independent of and equivalent to towns. Villages are included in towns but assume responsibility for some municipal services within their boundaries, usually water, sewage and sometimes local roads. Incorporated villages are not found in any of the other New England states.

Like most of New England, there is slight provision for autonomous county government. Counties and county seats are merely convenient repositories for various government services such as County and State Courts, with several elected officers such as a State's Attorney and Sheriff. All county services are directly funded by the State of Vermont.

Legislative branch

Vermont's state legislature is the Vermont General Assembly , a bicameral body composed of the Vermont House of Representatives (the lower house ) and the Vermont Senate (the upper house ) meet at the Vermont State House . The Senate is composed of 30 state senators, while the House of Representatives has 150 members.

Judicial branch

The Vermont Supreme Court is the state supreme court , made up of five justices who serve six year terms. Superior courts in the state are made up of eight judges serving a term of six years. Appointments to the state supreme court, superior court, and district courts are made by the governor, from a list of names submitted by the state's Judicial Nominating Committee and then are confirmed by the Senate. At the end of each six year term, the General Assembly votes by joint ballot (each member, senator or representative, getting one vote) on whether to retain the judge or justice (known as a judicial retention vote ). Judges on lower courts are elected on a partisan ballot. The Vermont Constitution spells out the process of judicial appointment and retention in Chapter 2, Sections 32 through 35, 50 and 51. http://www.leg.state.vt.us/statutes/const2.htm&lt;/ref&gt;

Vermont is one of twelve states that have no death penalty statute. After 1930, there were four executions, the last two being in 1954. Capital punishment was effectively abolished in practice in 1964, with the statutes being completely removed in 1987. State law allows children as young as ten years to be tried as adults, the lowest age limit currently specified by any of the 50 states. The Vermont prison system is administered by Vermont Department of Corrections http://www.doc.state.vt.us/&lt;/ref&gt;. There are about 2,200 inmates as of May 2007. There are nine prisons in Vermont:

  • Caledonia Community Work Camp
  • Chittenden Regional Correctional Facility
  • Dale Women's Facility
  • Marble Valley Regional Correctional Facility
  • Northern State Correctional Facility , Newport
  • Northwest State Correctional Facility
  • Southeast State Correctional Facility
  • Southern State Correctional Facility
  • St. Johnsbury Regional Correctional Facility
  • Windsor Women's Correctional Facility

An unusual feature of Vermont Courts are two side Side Judges for county courts, who are elected as officers of the court and participate in non-legal decisions by the court, such as guilt or innocence or voting in tort cases. In addition to their judicial duties, the two Side Judges serve as administrators of the County government. They appoint the County clerk, Treasurer and Auditor, County Road commissioners, Notaries Public and care for the County Court House plus care and maintenance of any other county-owned property.

Civil rights and liberties

The Vermont Constitution outlines and guarantees broad rights for its citizens. Even in the eighteenth century it was seen as being among the most far-reaching in the new world and in Europe, and it predated the Bill of Rights by a dozen years. The Constitution's first chapter, "Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of The State of Vermont" prohibits slavery, indentured servitude, and allowed for universal suffrage for men, regardless of property ownership. The Declaration of Rights set in place broad protections of religious freedom and conscience while erecting a strong firewall between church and state by prohibiting establishment or promotion of any faith by the government or compulsion to worship. The "Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of The State of Vermont" is believed to have been a model for France's D閏laration universelle sur des droits de l'homme (Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man).

Federal legislative representation

Vermont is represented in the US Senate by Patrick Leahy , a Democrat , and Bernie Sanders , an independent, caucusing with the Democrats. Vermont made history with Sanders's election as the first Democratic Socialist to be elected to the Senate. Sanders has served as Vermont's sole US Representative from 1991-2007 and also served as mayor of Burlington (Vermont's largest city) from 1981-1988. In the US House of Representatives , Vermont's single congressional district is represented by Peter Welch , a Democrat. Among Vermont's distinguished public servants, US Senator Winston Prouty (R) gained national prominence as an early critic of Senator Joseph McCarthy . Upon his departure from the Republican Party, Senator Jeffords cited the late Senator Prouty, a member of Vermont's most prominent political family, for the latter's legendary spirit of independence. George Aiken (R), who served as senator from 1941 until 1975, was equally prominent; he is perhaps best known for his proposal that the United States declare victory in Vietnam and leave.

Statutory

The age of consent in Vermont is 16.

Vermont is one of only two states in the Union to allow any adult to carry a concealed firearm without any sort of permit.

Vermont is one of four states (along with Alaska, Hawaii, and Maine) to have prohibited all billboards from view of highway rights-of-way by law, except for signs on the contiguous property of the business location.

Public nudity is legal in Vermont, though not disrobing in public. http://www.boston.com/news/local/vermont/articles/2006/08/23/law_of_nature_prevails_in_vermont/&lt;/ref&gt;

Vermont is an Alcoholic beverage control state . Beer and wine may be sold in local grocery stores unless the town in which it is located has voted "dry" at their town meeting. Only state licensed establishments may sell stronger alcoholic beverages in bottles. The quantity of these stores is limited. Prices are set by the state. The state directly controls the licensing of establishments that sell alcoholic beverages by the drink.

Medical

As a result of statutory benefits like Dr. Dynasaur , Vermont, with 9.5% of the population with no medical insurance , has the second best coverage in the country, as of 2004. http://healthsignals.typepad.com/newyork/health_economics/index.html&lt;/ref&gt;

Political

Vermonters are known for their political independence. Vermont is one of the few states that was an independent republic . It has sometimes voted contrarian in national elections. Notably, Vermont is the only state to have voted for a presidential candidate from the Anti-Masonic Party , and Vermont and Maine were the only states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt in his second election.

Vermont's unique history and history of independent political thought has led to movements for the establishment of the Second Vermont Republic and other plans advocating secession .These relatively small political movements are similar in nature to those found in California , Hawaii , Louisiana , and Texas ; although the historical contexts are variant.

The Vermont government maintains a proactive stance regarding the environment, social services, and prevention of urbanization . Legislators have recently tended to vote liberal on social issues, and moderate to conservative on fiscal issues.

Republicans dominated Vermont politics from the party's founding in 1854 until the mid-1970s. This likely owes more to the state's abolitionist history and later to their tendency towards fiscal conservatism than to social conservatism.

Prior to the 1960s, rural interests dominated the legislature. As a result, cities, particularly the older sections of Burlington and Winooski, were neglected and fell into decay. People began to move out to newer suburbs.

In the meantime, many people had moved in from out of state. Much of this emigration included the arrival of more liberal political influences of the urban areas of New York and New England in Vermont.

After the legislature was redistricted under one-man, one-vote, it passed legislation to accommodate these new arrivals. This legislation was the Land Use and Development Law ( Act 250 ) in 1970. The law, which was the first of its kind in the nation, created nine District Environmental Commissions consisting of private citizens, appointed by the Governor, who must approve land development and subdivision plans that would have a significant impact on the state's environment and many small communities.

As a result of Act 250, Vermont was the last state to get a Wal-Mart (there are four, as of December 2006, but only one was a newly-built big box), is currently the only state without a Lowe's or Target (as of December 2006), and it remains the only state without a McDonald's restaurant or big box store within the city limits of the capital.

Another case involves the recent controversy over the adoption of civil unions , an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the rights and privileges of marriage . In Baker v. Vermont (1999), the Vermont Supreme Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont , the state must either allow same-sex marriage or provide a separate but equal status for them. The state legislature chose the second option by creating the institution of civil union ; the bill was passed by the legislature and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean .

Vermont is the home state of the only current member of the United States Congress who does not associate with a political party: Senator Bernie Sanders .

In the early 1960s many progressive Vermont Republicans and newcomers to the state helped bolster the state's small Democratic Party. Until 1992, Vermont had supported a Democrat for president only once since the party's founding&mdash;in Lyndon Johnson 's 1964 landslide victory against Barry Goldwater . In 1992, it supported Democrat Bill Clinton for president and has voted for Democrats in every presidential election since. Vermont gave John Kerry his fourth largest margin of victory in 2004. He won the state's popular vote by 20 percentage points over incumbent George W. Bush , taking almost 59% of the vote. Essex County in the state's northeastern section was the only county to vote for Bush.

On the other hand, Republican Governor Douglas won all counties but Windham in the 2006 election. Vermonters are frequent ticket-splitters.

In 2007, when confronted with an allegedly liberal issue, assisted suicide for the terminally ill, the Democratically controlled House of Representatives rejected the measure by a vote of 82-63. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=54843&lt;/ref&gt;

Minor parties flourish. Rules which eliminate smaller parties from the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont. As a result, voters often have extensive choices for general elections.

A political issue has been Act 60 which balances taxation for education funding. This has resulted in the town of Killington trying to secede from Vermont and join New Hampshire due to what the locals say is an unfair tax burden. http://www.nhpr.org/node/8429&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;http://www.cnn.com/2004/US/Northeast/03/02/killington.secession.ap/&lt;/ref&gt;

There is also a movement to separate Vermont from the US or make it the 11 th province of Canada, with two territories. The website "Vermont Canada" says the state should join Canada due to it's remaining Liberal policies as opposed to the US http://www.vermontcanada.org/reasons.html&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;http://baheyeldin.com/canada/state-of-vermont-wants-to-join-canada.html&lt;/ref&gt;

Taxation

Property taxes are levied by towns based on fair market appraisal. Rates vary from .97% on homesteaded property in Ferdinand, Essex County, to 2.72% on nonresidents property in Barre City. Statewide towns average 1.77% to 1.82% tax rate. To equitably support education, some towns are required by Act 60 to send some of their collected taxes to be redistributed to school districts lacking adequate support. http://education.vermont.gov/new/html/laws/act60.html&lt;/ref&gt;

State Lotteries

Money from state lotteries supply 2% of the annual expenditures for education. http://www.vtlottery.com/faqs/faqs.asp#q1&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;http://www.rutlandherald.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070128/NEWS/701280392/1041/LEGISLATURE&lt;/ref&gt;

Town Government

Like most of New England, Vermont has a weak, nearly non-existent, county government. The next effective governmental level below state government are municipalities. Most of these are towns. Here are a description of town offices .

Public Health and Safety

Vermont was ranked number two in the nation for safety. Crime statistics on violence were used for the criteria. Morgan Quitno Press

Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the healthiest place to live for the sixth time in seven years. Criteria included low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage, the lowest AIDS rate in the country, and 18 other factors. http://money.aol.com/mortgage/healthiest-states&lt;/ref&gt;

Educaci髇

Academies and grammar schools

Vermont's 1777 constitution was the first in English-speaking North America to mandate public funding for universal education. This requirement was first met by elementary-level village schools with sessions held in the cooler months to accommodate farm work. Most schools educated similar numbers of girls and boys. Conditions in these schools varied, and the highest level of instruction was tenth grade. By the end of the eighteenth century, grammar schools, instructing students in English, algebra, geometry, Greek, and Latin, had been established at Bennington, Burlington, Castleton, Middlebury, Montpelier, and Windsor. These grammar schools were of a higher caliber than the smaller villages' schools, and the level of education at some was equivalent to college level.

By the middle nineteenth century, an expansion in settlement and the population of the state, coupled with increased prosperity, brought grammar schools to all corners of Vermont. Even the most remote Northeast Kingdom had established high-school-level instruction in Brownington, Craftsbury, Danville, Hardwick, and Newport. Many of these established grammar schools and academies, though not entirely public, received funds from area town governments in exchange for education of their students. As a system of public funding for primary and secondary education took root, many of these schools became municipal public schools. Several remained private, becoming private high-school-level academies, and several become colleges; the Rutland County Grammar School became Castleton State College , the Lamoille County Grammar School became Johnson State College , and the Addison County Grammar School became Middlebury College .

Educating teachers

In the 1860s a shortage of qualified teachers brought the establishment of state "normal schools," a term based on the French term 閏ole normale a school to train teachers. The grammar schools at Castleton, Johnson, and Randolph Center became normal schools, additional normal schools were established in Concord and Lyndonville. Additional post secondary schools instructing students to become teachers were called seminaries. While several were nominally associated with Protestant churches, none were seminaries in the sense of training ministers. These seminars also graduated teachers to staff Vermont's growing number of primary and secondary schools.

The one-room school house

The one-room school house, born of small multi-age rural populations, continued well into the twentieth century. Rural towns without a single central village often built two to a half-dozen school houses across their terrain. Much of this came from a lack of transportation and a need for students to return home by mid afternoon for farm chores. By 1920 all public schools, including the one-room school houses, were regulated by the state government. In the early 1930s state legislation established a review and certification program similar to accreditation. Schools were issued regulations about teacher education and curriculum. Education quality in rural areas was maintained through a program called Vermont Standard Schools. Rural school houses meeting certification requirements displayed a green and white plaque with the Vermont coat of arms and the words "Vermont Standard School."

Higher education

During the period of the Vermont Republic several towns on the east side of the Connecticut River were part of Vermont. This included Hanover, and Dartmouth College. Statehood brought about establishment of the Connecticut River as a natural border. Having lost Dartmouth College, Ira Allen established the University of Vermont (UVM) in 1791 to complement the smaller college at Castleton. By the mid-twentieth century all but one of the state normal schools, and many of the seminaries, had become four year colleges of liberal arts and sciences. Experimentation at the University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh, and later the influence of Vermont born philosopher and educator John Dewey brought about the concepts of electives and learning by doing. Today Vermont has five colleges within the Vermont State Colleges system, UVM , fourteen other private, degree-granting colleges, including Middlebury College , a private, co-educational liberal arts college founded in 1800, and the Vermont Law School at Royalton.

Deportes

The largest professional franchise is the Vermont Lake Monsters , formerly the Vermont Expos, a single-A minor league baseball team based in Burlington.

The Vermont Frost Heaves , the 2007 national champions, are a franchise of the American Basketball Association (Blue Conference), and have been based in Barre and Burlington since the fall of 2006.

Vermont is home to a semi-professional football team, the Ice Storm , based in South Hero .The term "semi-pro" is somewhat misleading since League rules prohibit paying team members. In fact, members pay to play. It plays its home games at the Colchester High School stadium. It is a member of the Empire Football League .

The Vermont Voltage is a USL Premier Development League soccer club that plays in St. Albans .

Cultural Pursuits

Vermont festivals include the Vermont Maple Festival, Festival on the Green http://www.festivalonthegreen.org/ , the Enosburg Falls Dairy Festival, the Apple Festival (held each Columbus Day Weekend), the Marlboro Music Festival , and the Vermont Mozart Festival . The Vermont Symphony Orchestra is supported by the state and performs throughout the area. The Poetry Society of Vermont publishes a literary magazine called The Green Mountain Troubadore which encourages submissions from members of various ages. Every year they hold various contests - one being for high school age young people. The Brattleboro-based Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual summer Shakespeare festival. Brattleboro also hosts the summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates Vermont's unique dairy culture. Montpelier is home to the annual Green Mountain Film Festival . In the Northeast Kingdom, The Bread and Puppet Theatre holds weekly shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater.

One of Vermont's best known musical exports was the group Phish , whose members met while attending school in Vermont. The state had always held great importance for Phish &mdash;for example, lead singer and guitarist Trey Anastasio built a studio in Vermont used by the band and others, called The Barn. Phish ended their tenure together as a band with a farewell concert weekend in the state's Northeast Kingdom, which was dubbed "Coventry" after (in part) the venue city of Coventry, Vermont , on August 16, 2004.

State symbols

State symbols include:

Vermont is distinct for being among only three US states with both a state seal and a coat of arms. Vermont is the only US state to have a heraldically correct blazon describing its coat of arms.

Notable Vermonters

Vermont is the birthplace of former presidents Calvin Coolidge and Chester A. Arthur .

The list of famous people from Vermont is an incomplete, alphabetized list of famous people who at one point called Vermont their home.

Notable fictional Vermonters

  • Bennington, Vermont, is also the home of Miss Molly Stark Wood, the love interest of the title character in Owen Wister's novel The Virginian .

V閍se tambi閚

  • History of Vermont
  • Scouting in Vermont
  • Vermont media
  • Music of Vermont
  • The Vermont State Colleges
  • Vermont State Police
  • Second Vermont Republic
  • Referencias

    Further reading

    • Albers, Jan. Hands on the Land: A History of the Vermont Landscape. MIT Press: 2000. ISBN 0-262-01175-1.
    • Bryan, Frank, and John McClaughry. "The Vermont Papers: Recreating Democracy on a Human Scale." Chelsea Green Publishing: 1989. ISBN 0-930031-19-9.
    • Cohen, David Elliot, and Rick Smolan. Vermont 24/7. DK Publishing: 2004. ISBN 0-7566-0086-3.
    • Coffin, Howard. Full Duty: Vermonters in the Civil War. The Countryman Press: 1995. ISBN 0-88150-349-5.
    • Doyle, William T. "The Vermont Political Tradition and Those Who Helped Make It." Doyle Publisher: 1987. ISBN 0-9615486-1-4.
    • Duffy, John J., et al. Vermont: An Illustrated History. American Historical Press: 2000. ISBN 1-892724-08-1.
    • Duffy, John J., et al. The Vermont Encyclopedia. University Press of New England: 2003. ISBN 1-58465-086-9.
    • Grant, Kim, et al. Vermont: An Explorer's Guide. The Countryman Press: 2002. ISBN 0-88150-519-6.
    • Klyza, Christopher McGrory, and Stephen C. Trombulak. The Story of Vermont: A Natural and Cultural History . University Press of New England: 1999. ISBN 0-87451-936-5.
    • Potash, P. Jeffrey, et al. Freedom and Unity: A History of Vermont. Vermont Historical Society: 2004. ISBN 0-934720-49-5.
    • Meeks, Harold A. Vermont's Land and Resources , The New England Press: 1968. ISBN 0-933050-40-2.
    • Hunter, Preston. &quot;Religion in Vermont&quot; . Adherents.com.
    • Rodgers, Steve. Country Towns of Vermont. McGraw-Hill: 1998. ISBN 1-56626-195-3.
    • Sherman, Joe. Fast Lane on a Dirt Road: A Contemporary History of Vermont. Chelsea Green Publishing Company: 2000. ISBN 1-890132-74-8.
    • Sletcher, Michael. New England. Westport, CT, 2004.
    • Vermont Atlas & Gazetteer. DeLorme: 2000. ISBN 0-89933-322-2.

    Enlaces externos

    Government